Pamela Werner grew up in a 1930s China dominated by the machinations and ambitions of four big political leaders:
Chiang Kai Shek, leader of the Kuomintang, China's Nationalist Party,
Mao Zedong, leader of the Chinese Communists,
Emperor Hirihito of Imperial Japan,
and the malign influence of Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union.
War on a massive scale was virtually inevitable.
Between 1931 and 1945, tens of millions died.
By 1949 the conflict resulted in two clear winners: Mao and Stalin; and two clear losers: Chiang and Hirohito.
Asia's political scene was thereafter set, and, in many ways, remains little-changed to this day.
Pamela's China of foreign enclaves, which had existed for 100 years, had disappeared.
Read about it in A Death in Peking